Rather Be the Devil: From the iconic #1 bestselling author of A SONG FOR THE DARK TIMES
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According to some adherents of Sufi mysticism, Iblis refused to bow to Adam because he was fully devoted to God alone and refused to bow to anyone else.   For this reason, Sufi masters regard Satan and Muhammad as the two most perfect monotheists.  Sufis reject the concept of dualism   and instead believe in the unity of existence.  In the same way that Muhammad was the instrument of God's mercy,  Sufis regard Satan as the instrument of God's wrath.  For the Muslim Sufi scholar Ahmad Ghazali, Iblis was the paragon of lovers in self-sacrifice for refusing to bow down to Adam out of pure devotion to God  Ahmad Ghazali's student Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir was among the Sunni Muslim mystics who defended Iblis, asserted that evil was also God's creation, Sheikh Adi argued that if evil existed without the will of God, then God would be powerless and powerlessness can't be attributed to God.  Some Sufis assert, since Iblis was destined by God to become a devil, God will also restore him to his former angelic nature. Attar compares Iblis's damnation to the Biblical Benjamin: Both were accused unjustly, but their punishment had a greater meaning. In the end, Iblis will be released from hell.  Newman, Yona (1999–2009), "Part 1 Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Linear Translation: The Laws of finger washing and the blessings after the meal", yonanewman.org, archived from the original on 2016-05-18 Melion, Walter; Zell, Michael; Woodall, Joanna (2017). Ut pictura amor: The Reflexive Imagery of Love in Artistic Theory and Practice, 1500–1700. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p.240. ISBN 978-9-004-34646-8.
Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 – Oxford dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Mar., 1913), pp.167–172 in JSTOR Alexander Altmann, Alfred L. Ivry, Elliot R. Wolfson, Allan Arkush Perspectives on Jewish Thought and Mysticism Taylor & Francis 1998 ISBN 978-9-057-02194-7 p. 268 Paul G. Hiebert was raised in India but trained in the West as an anthropologist and missiologist. He came to realize that his western training had made him become unaware of the world of spirits both good and evil, which the majority world has never lost sight of. He called this blind spot “the flaw of the excluded middle.” He thought that many western Christians may have an espoused theology affirming angels and demons, but in practice have an operational theology that lives as though God and ourselves were the only intelligences. The blind spot will show itself in our prayers if we never pray that the risen Christ might continue to bind the strongman, as it were, and spoil his goods through the victory of the cross.
The early English settlers of North America, especially the Puritans of New England, believed that Satan "visibly and palpably" reigned in the New World.  John Winthrop claimed that the Devil made rebellious Puritan women give birth to stillborn monsters with claws, sharp horns, and "on each foot three claws, like a young fowl."  Cotton Mather wrote that devils swarmed around Puritan settlements "like the frogs of Egypt".  The Puritans believed that the Native Americans were worshippers of Satan  and described them as "children of the Devil".  Some settlers claimed to have seen Satan himself appear in the flesh at native ceremonies.  During the First Great Awakening, the " new light" preachers portrayed their "old light" critics as ministers of Satan.  By the time of the Second Great Awakening, Satan's primary role in American evangelicalism was as the opponent of the evangelical movement itself, who spent most of his time trying to hinder the ministries of evangelical preachers,  a role he has largely retained among present-day American fundamentalists.  The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man by Jan Brueghel the Elder and Pieter Paul Rubens, c. 1615, depicting Eve reaching for the forbidden fruit beside the Devil portrayed as a serpentForsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4. Brosh, Na'ama; Milstein, Rachel; Yiśraʼel, Muzeʼon (1991). Biblical stories in Islamic painting. Jerusalem: Israel Museum. p.27. ASIN B0006F66PC. Wood engraving by Gustave Doré depicting Dante’s Inferno, Canto XXXIV, in which Dante and Virgil encounter Satan in the Ninth Circle of Hell.